Nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease (NTM-LD) is a relatively uncommon condition, although its prevalence is rising. In this interactive CME activity, Drs. Anne O’Donnell and Patrick Flume review 2 patient cases to demonstrate how clinicians can maintain a greater index of suspicion for the diagnosis of NTM-LD to enable timely and effective therapy. The management of NTM-LD remains challenging, owing to the need for long-term treatment, the potential for drug-related toxicities, and patient nonadherence. These factors underscore the importance of specialty referral for the successful management of NTM-LD.