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Antibody-Mediated Rejection: New Approaches in Prevention and Management

This article reviews the pathophysiology of antibody‚Äźmediated rejection (AMR) with emphasis on the role of complement in allograft injury. It reviews the required features for a definitive diagnosis of AMR according to the latest Banff criteria, which incorporate recent findings delineating the complex spectrum of AMR and the diverse phenotypes seen. Clinical data on current and investigational treatments are summarized, and strategies to improve outcomes are presented. Lastly, a discussion of relevant predictive and surrogate endpoints provides a framework for future studies.